Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / miner
larva of Cryptaciura rotundiventris mines leaf of Heracleum

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe heraclei parasitises live Heracleum
Remarks: season: -10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lachnella villosa is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Heracleum

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Liophloeus tessulatus feeds on root of Heracleum

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, becoming superficial pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Metasphaeria complanata is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia lychnidis is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, densely crowded, subiculate pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma longissima is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, or becoming erumpent, often in elongated groups of 2 to 5 pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis hysteriola is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum

Foodplant / miner
larva of Phytomyza spondylii mines leaf of Heracleum

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pirottaea nigrostriata is saprobic on dead stem (residual cortex) of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 3-6
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
almost sessile or shortly stalked apothecium of Pseudombrophila deerrata is saprobic on rotting stem of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 5-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Stachybotrys dematiaceous anamorph of Stachybotrys cylindrospora is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 5-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
embedded chlamydospore of Taphridium umbelliferarum infects and damages live leaf of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo mioceras grazes on leaf of Heracleum
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Unguiculella hamulata is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Urceolella crispula is saprobic on dead stem of Heracleum
Remarks: season: 5-11

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:125
Specimens with Sequences:147
Specimens with Barcodes:70
Species:62
Species With Barcodes:61
Public Records:80
Public Species:57
Public BINs:0
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Heracleum (plant)

Heracleum is a genus of about 60 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of biennial and perennial herbs in the carrot family Apiaceae. They are found throughout the temperate northern hemisphere and in high mountains as far south as Ethiopia. Common names for the genus or its species include hogweed[1] and cow parsnip.[2][3]

Major species include:

  • Heracleum mantegazzianum, Giant Hogweed, is a native of the Caucasus Mountains, grows to 4-5m tall, and can cause severe phytophotodermatitis if the sap gets on human skin. The main mechanism for this dermatitis is extreme photosensitivity, causing severe sunburn on exposure to relatively small amounts of sunlight, with rash and blistering appearing within a few minutes: accordingly immediately covering sap-affected skin can prevent the dermatitis in many cases. It has become a serious invasive weed in many areas of Europe and North America, after being introduced as a garden plant.
  • Heracleum persicum, Persian Hogweed, is similar in size and properties to the Giant Hogweed, and was originally from Iran, Iraq and Turkey; it is known in northern Norway as the Tromsø palm.
  • Heracleum sphondylium, Common Hogweed, is common in Europe.
  • Heracleum lanatum (synonyms: Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, Heracleum maximum), Cow Parsnip, is common in North America
  • Heracleum nepalense is common in Sikkim and Darjeeling district of India. Called chimphing in the Nepali language, it is considered medicinal for stomach ailments and its seeds are ground with tomato and taken as a relish, especially with boiled vegetables.

Gallery[edit]

Species[edit]

Note that this is a full list of the 187 names described in the genus; the majority of these names are treated as synonyms of earlier-described species by most botanists.

Similar species[edit]

Many plants in the parsley family look similar to hogweeds, with white flowers in compound umbels, as do some in the daisy family (Asteraceae). Plants confused with Heracleum include the hemlocks (Conium) and water hemlocks (Cicuta) which are highly poisonous.

Water parsnip (Sium suave), which is not poisonous is also similar in appearance.[4]

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) in the daisy family also has many small white flowers in its inflorescence, but the leaves are pinnately separated into small narrow segments.

References[edit]

  1. ^ hogweed at Oxford Online Dictionaries
  2. ^ Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z.; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium (1976). Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-505470-7. 
  3. ^ "Heracleum L.". Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 11 Oct 2011. 
  4. ^ Harriet V. Kuhnlein; Nancy J. Turner (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Food and nutrition in history and anthropology. Gordon and Breach. ISBN 978-2-88124-465-0. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
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