Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
BiologyAdults occur in the intertidal zone and shallow bottoms, on rocks or sand between pebbles and vegetation (Ref. 5981). Often in brackish waters down to 5 ppt (Ref. 5981). Inhabit crevices or piddock holes, males remain in cavities above water-level during low tide (Ref. 5981). Feed on benthic invertebrates, mainly mollusks, also algae (Ref. 5981). Also ingest large amounts of aquatic insects and pupae (Ref. 94105). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Mature males adopt a passive role during courtship, rarely court females, do not defend nest territory, but provide parental care to eggs. Sneaker males assume a female-like behavior in order to approach the nests of nesting males and parasitically fertilize the eggs (Ref. 94113). Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. 205). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35421).