Overview

Comprehensive Description

Derivation of specific name

fusca: greyish-brown or dark greyish-brown, fuscous
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Brief

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Anitha, K. Reviewer/s: Sadasivaiah, B., Bhat, G.K., Augustine, J., Rao, M.L.V., Dahanukar, N. & Molur, S. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: This is a common grass that is widely distributed across Africa, Southeast and East Asia and faces no major threats. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. Conservation Actions: Conservation action not identified for the species."
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Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Description

A densely tufted, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plant, rooting and branching from the lower nodes. Leaf-blades are linear, finely tapered at the tip. Inflorescence is composed of 10–30 racemes, each bearing loosely arranged and indistinctly secund spikelets. Spikelets are subterete, 7–11-flowered. Fruit is a dorsally compressed caryopsis.

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Distribution

Range Description

Leptochloa ginae is a strict endemic species of Morocco. It is very rare with a very restricted distribution. It is known from four localities of which two are located on the Atlantic coastline: on the right strand of the Massa river and on the right strand of the Arksis river (limit Anti Coastal Atlas and Saharan Morocco). The two other localities, situated in the Moroccan part of North Sahara, are slightly continental: El Aoune of the Dra, to about 500 m elevation and Jbel Bou tagount. Its extent of occurrence is about 1,500 km.
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Range Description

This grass occurs in Tropical Old World and Australia: Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India (Cook 1996) and has been recorded from Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait (Cope 2007) and Oman (Patzeltpers. comm. 2012) in the Arabian Peninsula.

Indian distribution of the species is mainly from Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996). The species is reported from Bombay, Raigad, Satara and Thane of Maharashtra (Lakshminarasimhan 1996). Also seen in Bhosgaon and Pratapgad in Maharashtra (Deshpande et al.1995). In Tamil Nadu the species is located from Pudukottai, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin (Kabeer and Nair 2009). It is found in Thottappally of Alleppey and Cochin of Ernakulam districts of Kerala (Sreekumar and Nair1991). Apart from these, the species is reported from Damoh in Madhya Pradesh (Roy 2001). Gamble (1928) reported the species from Kistna, Anantapur, Malabar and Tinnevelly, Travancore .
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Tropical and Subtropical regions of Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Ernakulam

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"Range Description: This grass occurs in Tropical Old World and Australia: Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India (Cook 1996). Indian distribution of the species is mainly from Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996). The species is reported from Bombay, Raigad, Satara and Thane of Maharashtra (Lakshminarasimhan 1996). Also seen in Bhosgaon and Pratapgad in Maharashtra (Deshpande et al. 1995). In Tamil Nadu the species is located from Pudukottai, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin (Kabeer and Nair 2009). It is found in Thottappally of Alleppey and Cochin of Ernakulam districts of Kerala (Sreekumar and Nair1991). Apart from these, the species is reported from Damoh in Madhya Pradesh (Roy 2001). Gamble (1928) reported the species from Kistna, Anantapur, Malabar and Tinnevelly, Travancore . Countries - Native: Angola; Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia); Bangladesh; Benin; Bhutan; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; China; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; Ghana; India (Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mauritania; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Nigeria; Philippines; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Uganda; Viet Nam; Zimbabwe"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean regions, oases, Egyptian desert, Res Sea coastal strip, and Gebel Elba.

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Global Distribution

Tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World.

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Distribution: Pakistan (Sind & Punjab); tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World and Australia.
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Widely distributed in India, extending to Egypt and Tropical and South Africa through Southeast Asia to Australia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems compressed, flattened, or sulcate, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distic hous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Inflorescence branches 1-sided, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes per sistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets secund, in rows on one side of rachis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma awnless, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 1, Stamens 2, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Perennial, loosely tufted to rhizomatous. Culms erect or geniculate and rooting from lower nodes, up to 100 cm or more tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous; leaf blades tough, usually involute, 5–30(–50) × 0.15–0.3(–0.6) cm, adaxial surface scabrid, abaxial surface subglabrous; ligule 3–12 mm, acute. Inflorescence 15–25 cm, scabrid; racemes 3–28, indistinctly unilateral, 4–20 cm, straight, ascending or spreading, spikelets usually distant. Spikelets glaucous-green, subterete, 6–14 mm, florets 5–12; glumes keeled; lower glume lanceolate, 2–3 mm, acute; upper glume narrowly oblong, 3–4 mm, acute or mucronate; lemmas narrowly oblong, dorsally subrounded, lowest 4–5 mm, lower lateral veins pilose, entire or 2-dentate, midvein often produced into a short 0.3–1.6 mm awn; palea ciliolate along upper keels. Callus laterally pilose. Anthers 0.5–0.75(–2.5) mm. Caryopsis elliptic-oblong, 1.5–2.5 mm, dorso-ventrally flattened. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep. 2n = 20.
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Description

Aquatic or semi-aquatic rhizomatous perennial; culms 60-150 cm high, rooting and branching from the lower nodes. Leaf-blades tough, linear with filiform tips, 25-55 cm long, up to 5 mm wide, inrolled or rarely flat, scabrid, grey-green with a broad white central nerve. Inflorescence 20-35 cm long; racemes 10-30, slender, 7-15 cm long, more or less straight. Spikelets 6-11-flowered; narrowly elliptic to elliptic, 8-15 mm long, slightly overlapping, grey-green or olive-green; glumes keeled, scabrid on the keels, the lower lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 2.1-4.6 mm long, acute or acuminate, the upper narrowly oblong, 3.3-7.4 mm long, acute or obtuse and minutely mucronate; lemmas narrowly oblong, 3.2-5.9 mm long, pilose on the lower part of the nerves, 2- or more toothed and mucronate or shortly awned from the sinus (the awn 0.3-1.6 mm long). Caryopsis dorso-ventrally flattened.
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Description

Culm tufted. Blade linear, needle-like, about 12 cm long by 1 mm wide; ligule hyaline, about 2 mm long, tongue-shaped. Inflorescence a contracted panicle, about 10 cm long. Spikelets several-flowered, shortly pedicelled, about 6 mm long by 2-2.2 mm wide; glumes chartaceous, conspicuously 1-nerved, lanceolate, acute; lowest lemma chartaceous, 3-5 mm long, broadly lanceolate, 3-nerved, 2-toothed, margins inrolled, basal part with short silky hairs; midrib prolonged into a short awn of about 1.5 mm long; palea elliptical, chartaceous, 2-keeled, siliceous on keels; anther about 0.5 mm long. Caryopsis about 2 mm long; embryo 1/3 the length of the caryopsis.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials. Culms tufted, erect 30-100 cm high, rooting and branching from the lower nodes. Leaves linear-lanceolate or linear-acuminate, 8-35 x 0.2-0.6 cm, rounded at base, glaucous. Sheaths keeled. Ligules ovate, acute, 5-6 mm long, membranous. Panicles 10-30 cm long, densely spiculate. Spikelets linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 4-8 x 1-1.5 mm, 4-6-flowered. Lower glume oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-2 x 0.5-1 mm, chartaceous, 1-nerved. Upper glume oblong or elliptic-oblong, 2.5-3 x 1 mm, mucronate, chartaceous, 1-nerved. Lemmas oblong or linear-oblong, 4-5 x 1-1.5 mm, 3-lobed, muticous, chartaceous, 3-nerved, villous along the nerves in the lower half. Paleas oblong or elliptic-oblong, 2-3 x 1 mm, delicate, 2-keeled, 2-nerved, scabrid along the keels. Stamens 3; anthers c. 1 mm long. Ovary oblanceolate, 0.25-0.5 mm long; styles 0.5-1 mm long; stigmas 1-2 mm long."
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Synonym

Festuca fusca Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 876. 1759; Diplachne fusca (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois ex Roemer & Schultes; D. malabarica (Linnaeus) Merrill, nom. rej.; Leptochloa mala-barica (Linnaeus) Veldkamp, nom. rej.; Poa malabarica Linnaeus, nom. rej.
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Synonym

Festuca fusca L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2. 109. 1763.
   Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth, Rev. Gram. l: 91. 1829; Honda, Monogr. Poac. Jap. 148. 1930.  
Triodia formosana Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 41: 12. 1927, Monogr. Poac. Jap. 114. 1930.
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Type Information

Isotype for Uralepis alba Steud.
Catalog Number: US 899275
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): K. G. Kotschy
Year Collected: 1839
Locality: In littore Lacus Tura as montem Cordofanum Arasch-cool. [On shore of Lake Tura As (?), mountains of Kurdofan, Arasch-cool?], Kordafan, Sudan, Africa
  • Isotype: Steudel, E. G. von. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 248.
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Isotype for Uralepis alba Steud.
Catalog Number: US 3298778
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): K. G. Kotschy
Year Collected: 1839
Locality: In littore Lacus Tura as montem Cordofanum Arasch-cool. [On shore of Lake Tura As (?), mountains of Kurdofan, Arasch-cool?], Kordafan, Sudan, Africa
  • Isotype: Steudel, E. G. von. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 248.
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Type fragment for Diplachne pallida Hack. ex Schinz
Catalog Number: US 865886
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Rehmann
Locality: Boshveld, Klippan., Transvaal, South Africa, Africa
  • Type fragment: Schinz, H. 1895. Bull. Herb. Boissier. 3: 387.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Leptochloa ginae is a perennial whose biological type varies from Chamaephyte to Geophyte. The plant grows on arid and hot quartzitic or dolomitic rocks of the banks of rivers. It blooms in summer under the arid Mediterranean bioclimate.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species is a tufted perennial. It is not confined to wetlands but frequently found in fresh and brackish water, salt marshes, irrigation ditches, rice fields and along roadsides. The stems are spongy in water.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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General Habitat

"Salt marshes, muddy wastelands and paddy fields, and mangrove forests"
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General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: The species is a tufted perennial. It is not confined to wetlands but frequently found in fresh and brackish water, salt marshes, irrigation ditches, rice fields and along roadsides. The stems are spongy in water. Systems: Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.7, 5.17, 14, 14.1"
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
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Habitat & Distribution

Shallow water, marshy, sometimes brackish ground. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa, SW Asia, Australia].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: September-December
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per. March-November.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diplachne fusca

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Leptochloa fusca

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Leptochloa fusca

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Ibn Tattou, M., Rhazi, L. & Grillas, P.

Reviewer/s
Grillas, P., Ali, M.M., de Blair, G., Alves, P., Temple, H. (IUCN Species Programme) & Muller, S.D.

Contributor/s

Justification
Leptochloa ginae has a small extent of occurrence (1,500 km) and is only found at four locations that are under a high pressure from intensive grazing and urban as well as tourism development. It is therefore classified as Endangered.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Anitha, K.

Reviewer/s
Sadasivaiah, B., Bhat, G.K., Augustine, J., Rao, M.L.V., Dahanukar, N., Molur, S. & Garca, N.

Contributor/s
Molur, S., Patzelt, A. & Knees, S.G.

Justification
This is a common grass that is widely distributed across Africa, Southeast and East Asia and faces no major threats. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2013
    Least Concern (LC)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Anitha, K. Reviewer/s: Sadasivaiah, B., Bhat, G.K., Augustine, J., Rao, M.L.V., Dahanukar, N. & Molur, S. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: This is a common grass that is widely distributed across Africa, Southeast and East Asia and faces no major threats. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. Conservation Actions: Conservation action not identified for the species."
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Population

Population
No data on the size of the populations or on their present trends is available.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
It is abundant in its range. Population trends are unknown.

Population Trend
Stable
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Population: It is abundant in its range. Population trends are unknown. Population Trend: Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threats to the habitat are the urban and tourist amenities, as well as the pressure of grazing by goats.
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Major Threats
There are no specific threats reported for the species.
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Major Threat (s): There are no specific threats reported for the species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place but the following actions are recommended:
- Legal protection of the species (List of protected species in Morocco)
- Surveillance of the existing sites and search for new sites
- To study the biology and the ecology of the species and to estimate the population size
- Monitoring of the population dynamics
- Implementation of legal protection measures (Law on the enhancement of the environment, Law on the studies of impact)
- Raising public awareness
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation action not identified for the species.
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Notes

Comments

This is a widespread, polymorphic species varying in habit, height, and robustness of the culm, compactness of the inflorescence, and in the lemma tip. It is a salt-tolerant species and is known to excrete salt through glands on the leaves.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Comments

Buffaloes are very fond of this grass.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Comments

It is usually found in littoral regions.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The concept of Leptochloa fusca in Kartesz (1999) includes material previously treated as Leptochloa fascicularis (L. fusca ssp. fascicularis) and Leptochloa uninervia (L. fusca ssp. uninervia).

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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