Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
BiologyUsually found in heavily vegetated swamps and ponds; occasionally in medium to large rivers and lakes with abundant vegetation (Ref. 5723). Migrations appear to be limited to inshore or upstream movements to spawning grounds in the spring and (presumably) reverse migrations to deeper water in the fall (Ref. 27547). Oviparous, batch spawner (Ref. 205). Known for their tolerance to cold water: survives exposures to -20°C for up to 40 minutes, and can survive for a few days after complete freezing of parts of the body, even the head (Ref. 28673, 28674). Uses its esophagus as auxiliary breathing organ (Ref. 27797).